Higher Education Guide: Appendix A - Endnotes

Jennifer Pokempner,


1) See Mark E. Courtney et al., Chapin Hall U. Chi., Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth: Outcomes at age 23 and 24, at 22 (2010).

2) See id.; Peter J. Pecora et al., Casey Fam. Programs, Assessing the Effects of Foster Care: Early Results from the Casey National Alumni Study 28 (2003).

3) For 2018 data, see U.S. Bureau Lab. Stats., Nat. Ctr. Educ. Stats., College Enrollment and Work Activity of Recent High School and College Graduates Summary, (Apr. 25, 2019), https://www.bls.gov/news.release/hsgec.nr0.htm, and for 1993-2016 data, see U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 69.7 percent of 2016 high school graduates enrolled in college in October 2016 (May 22, 2017), https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2017/69-point-7-percent-of-2016-high-schoo…;

4) See Camille L. Ryan & Kurt Bauman, U.S. Census Bureau, Educational Attainment in the United States: 2015, at 2 (Mar. 29, 2016),  https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2016/dem…;

5)  Examples of helpful, more general guides or resources include: Step Up to College (a Philadelphia-focused guide with helpful information for all students and information on Philadelphia Futures, a program dedicated to providing services for low-income, first-generation Philadelphia students);  I Want to Go To College: Now What? (the U.S. Department of Education’s 2018 college guide); College Board, Create Your Road Map Tool (a tool to help with college planning);  College Navigator (the U.S. Department of Education’s college-planning tool); Unigo Scholarship Resources (a website connecting students to scholarships). 

6) A great place to start to get help with advocacy for a youth who is in middle or high school are the Foster Care Points of Contact through the school system and education liaisons at the children welfare agency.  You can find more information about these contact people here: https://directory.center-school.org/fostercare. 

Chapter 1

1) The Family First Prevention and Services Act, which was enacted in 2018, renamed Independent Living Services to “Transition to Adulthood Services.” This change in language was meant to reflect the growing consensus that the goal is to help youth develop the skills they need to thrive as adults.  Most adults continue to be interdependent on others rather than independent.  We agree with this change in the wording but understand that “Independent Living” and “IL services” are still terms that are often used.

2) See 42 U.S.C.A. § 675(1)(D) (West 2018).  

3)  Federal law provides the following examples of transition to adulthood services: assistance in obtaining a high school diploma and post-secondary education, career exploration, vocational training, job placement and retention, training  and opportunities to practice daily living skills (such as financial literacy training and driving instruction),  substance prevention, and preventive health activities (including smoking avoidance, nutrition education, and pregnancy prevention. See 42 U.S.C.A. § 677(a)(1) (West 2018).   You can out more about transition to adulthood services in Pennsylvania by reviewing this Bulletin issued by the Office of Children, Youth, and Families about Independent Living Services.  

4) Some youth may be eligible for aftercare services if they left the child welfare system after age 14 as well. 

5) Pennsylvania has elected to take the option offered in the federal Family First Act to extend aftercare until age 23.

6)  You can find out which county has responsibility by asking in what county the youth has court and in what county is the child welfare agency that works on their case located.

7) The federal law, which funds transition to adulthood services, is called the John H. Chafee Foster Care Program for Successful Transition to Adulthood, 42 U.S.C.A. §677 (West 2018).  The law requires that all states serve youth in aftercare as long as they are eligible for services.  A youth who was in foster care in Pennsylvania and eligible for transition services is still eligible to receive aftercare if she or he moves to another state, if the youth is still under age 21.  The State Child Welfare Agency, The Office of Children, Youth and Families has issued guidance on these services in Youth Independent Living Services Guidelines.

8)  The court shall make findings related to “the services needed to assist the child to make the transition from foster care to a successful adulthood.”  42 U.S.C.A. §675(5)(C) (West 2018). 

9) See 42 U.S.C.A. 675 U.S.C.A. §675(5)(H) (West 2018).  

10) See id.

11) See 237 Pa. Code § 1631(E) (2013). 

12) 42 U.S.C.A. § 675(5)(I)

13) See 42 Pa. Stat. And Cons. Stat. Ann. § 6301 (West 2012) (defining “dependent child”). 

14) Youth are also eligible for extended care if they are: (1) completing secondary education or an equivalent credential; (2) enrolled in an institution which provides postsecondary or vocational education; (3) participating in a program actively designed to promote or remove barriers to employment; (4) employed for at least 80 hours per month; or (5) incapable of doing any of the activities described in (1)-(4). See id.

15) Youth Independent Living Services Guidelines, Office of Children, Youth and Families Bulletin, 3130-14-01, page 6-11 (December 8, 2014).

16) See 42 Pa. Stat. And Cons. Stat. Ann. § 6351(j) (West 2016).

17) See 42 U.S.C. § 675(5)(C)(iv) (West 2018) (Beginning at age 14, the youth must be allowed to involve two individuals in case planning who are not a foster parent or part of the casework staff. One of these individuals may be an advocate on normalcy issues.).

18) Here is something you can say when you call: “Hello.  I am working with a young adult who is eligible for Chafee services and now lives in your county or state.  Can you provide me information on how she can find out about receiving services?” 

Chapter 2

1) See 24 Pa. Stat. And Cons. Stat. Ann. § 26-2604-K (West 2019). 

2) See 24 Pa. Stat. And Cons. Stat. Ann. § 26-2604-K(6) (West 2019).

3) See 24 Pa. Stat. And Cons. Stat. Ann. § 26-2604-K (West 2019). 

4) See 22 Pa. Code §§ 44.1 (2000) et seq.

5) See 22 Pa. Code §44.4 (2000) (establishing the criteria for Eligible Students). 

6) See 20 U.S.C.A. § 1070a-14 (West 2010).

7) The name of the office might not have the word “disability” in it. It may be called the office of “access” “equity,” or “accommodations.”

8) 29 U.S.C.A. § 794 (West 2016).

9) 42 U.S.C.A. § 12101 (West 2008) et seq.

Chapter 3

1) An FSA ID is a username and password used to log into U.S. Department of Education (USDE) websites and electronically sign the FAFSA. Go to https://fsaid.ed.gov/npas/index.htm to create your FSA ID.

2) Examples of an eligible non-citizen includes a U.S. permanent resident who has a green card (Permanent Resident Card), a conditional permanent resident with a conditional Green Card, or a “refugee.” Find the complete list on the FAFSA.

3) If you are still in foster care, ask your caseworker to help you get your social security card and number.  If you are out of care, click here and type in your zip code to find your local Social Security Office. Complete this application and take it to your local office to request a social security card.

4) Please check out this link to get more details question 53 on the FAFSA. 

5) 2017-2018 Application and Verification Guide, AVG-26.

6) The federal Chafee program is called Education and Training Vouchers (ETV).  See 42 U.S.C.A. § 677(i).  In Pennsylvania, the program is called Education and Training Grant to make clear that this is a grant program.

7) You can find a list of schools that receive Title IV aid from the Department of Education here.

8)  See 42 U.S.C.A. § 677(i)(2) (West 2018). In Pennsylvania, guardianship is often referred to as subsidized or unsubsidized permanency legal custodianship (PLC or SPLC).

9) See 42 U.S.C.A. § 677(i)(3) (West 2018).

10) See id.

11) See 24 Pa. Stat. And Cons. Stat. Ann. § 26-2602-K (West 2019). 

12) See 24 Pa. Stat. And Cons. Stat. Ann. § 26-2601-K (West 2019) (definitions).

13) See 24 Pa. Stat. And Cons. Stat. Ann. § 26-2602-K (West 2019). 

14) See id. 

15) See Pa. Dept. Education, Fostering Independence Tuition Waiver, https://www.education.pa.gov/Postsecondary-Adult/CollegeCareer/Fosterin… (the waivers “also cover college application fees.”).

Chapter 4

1) To find out more about SNAP and efforts to make it more accessible to college students, see Hope Ctr., Beyond the Food Pantry: Supporting Students with Access to SNAP (2019),  https://cufba.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/HopeCenterBrief_1.pdf. 

2) This is a very brief and incomplete description of public benefits in Pennsylvania and focuses on benefits that may be most helpful to students.  More information about public benefits in Pennsylvania is available here

3) To find out more about efforts to ensure that students have access to LIHEAP, see Hope Ctr., Beyond the Food Pantry: Supporting Students with Access to SNAP (2019,  https://cufba.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/HopeCenterBrief_1.pdf. 

4) See 42 U.S. §1396a(43)((A) (West 2019).

5) See 42 U.S. §1396a(10)((A)(i)(IX) (West 2019).